Original Civil War




Complete in 4 large volumes. The exceedingly Rare and highly desirable MANUSCRIPT EDITION! With a piece of the original Manuscript. FIRST EDITION/FIRST PRINTING, of Beveridge's Lincoln.

The MANUSCRIPT EDITION, with a piece of the original manuscript. This being the earliest and MOST DESIRABLE form of this set. This is the most desirable form of this set. This is the rare MANUSCRIPT EDITION, and is the most desirable form of this set. It contains a piece of the original handwritten manuscript. Limited to only 1000 copies this is #742. Because of his indefatigable efforts to strip away the myths and legends that had accumulated around Lincoln. The work is regarded as the first Lincoln biography to meet modern scholarly standards. A critical addition to any collection. These are extremely large books. Complete in 4 volumes, as stated on the half title pages. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, 1809 - 1858. Illustrated with photographic and illustrated plates. These are the original bindings. Ornate gilded spine with raised hubs. These are large, heavy books at approximately 10 inches tall. VERY GOOD condition, with some extremity abrasions. Hinges fully attached, rubbed, as shown. Internally this set is e xceptionally fresh and well preserved. Near free of any trace of foxing after the first few pages up front. No writing or signs of previous ownership. Includes the two frontisplates protected by tissue. The First Edition alone is quite desirable, let alone such a nice copy of this MANUSCRIPT EDITION.

Beveridge was meticulous and zealous in his research, reaching to verify each and every detail that would be printed. Indeed, according to ANB, because of his indefatigable efforts to strip away the myths and legends that had accumulated around Lincoln, the work is regarded as the first Lincoln biography to meet modern scholarly standards. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

March 4, 1899 March 3, 1911. October 6, 1862 Highland County, Ohio. April 27, 1927 (aged 64) Indianapolis, Indiana.

Albert Jeremiah Beveridge (October 6, 1862 April 27, 1927) was an American. He was an intellectual leader of the Progressive Era. And a biographer of Chief Justice John Marshall.

He was born on October 6, 1862, in Highland County, Ohio. His parents moved to Indiana soon after his birth. Both of his parents, Thomas H. And Frances Parkinson, were of English.

His childhood was one of hard work and labor. Securing an education with difficulty, he eventually became a law clerk in Indianapolis. In 1887, he was admitted to the Indiana bar, practiced law in Indianapolis. Some years after Katherine's death in 1900, Beveridge married Catherine Eddy.

Beveridge graduated from Indiana Asbury University now DePauw University. In 1885, with a Ph. He was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon. He was known as a compelling orator. Delivering speeches supporting territorial expansion by the US and increasing the power of the federal government. Beveridge entered politics in 1884 by speaking on behalf of presidential candidate James G. And was prominent in later campaigns, particularly in that of 1896, when his speeches attracted general attention.

In 1899, Beveridge was appointed to the U. S progressive views and was the keynote speaker at the new Progressive Party.

Convention which nominated Roosevelt for U. Beveridge is known as one of the most prominent American imperialists.

He supported the annexation of the Philippines. And, along with Republican leader Henry Cabot Lodge. Campaigned for the construction of a new navy. In 1901, Beveridge became chair of the Senate Committee on Territories, which allowed him to support statehood for Oklahoma. However, he blocked statehood for New Mexico and Arizona because he deemed the territories too sparsely occupied by white people.

In his opinion, they contained too many Hispanics and Native Americans, whom he described as intellectually incapable of understanding the concept of self-governance. He celebrated the "white man's burden" as a noble mission, part of God's plan to bring civilization to the entire world: It is racial.... He has marked the American people as His chosen nation....

After Beveridge's election in 1905 to a second term, he became identified with the reform-minded faction of the Republican Party. He championed national child labor legislation.

Broke with President William Howard Taft. Tariff, and sponsored the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Adopted in the wake of the publication of Upton Sinclair. Furthermore, Beveridge joined insurgents in supporting postal savings bank legislation and railroad regulations with the Mann-Elkins Act of 1910. He lost his senate seat to John Worth Kern.

When the Democrats took Indiana in the 1910 elections. In 1912, when Roosevelt left the Republican Party.

To found the short-lived Progressive Party. Beveridge left with him and ran campaigns as that party's Indiana nominee in the 1912 race for governor and the 1914 race for senator, losing both.

But losing the general to Samuel M. And would never again hold office. Another contribution towards his political downfall was the fact he was a great critic of Woodrow Wilson. He encouraged Wilson to take a more interventionist policy with the Mexican Revolution.

But disliked Wilson's League of Nations, which Beveridge felt would undermine American independence. In the twilight of his life, Beveridge came to repudiate some of the earlier expansion of governmental power that he had championed in his earlier career.

In one notable address, delivered before the Sons of the Revolution. S annual dinner in June 1923, Beveridge decried the growth of the regulatory state and the proliferation of regulatory bodies, bureaus and commissions. "America would be better off as a country and Americans happier and more prosperous as a people, " he suggested, if half of our Government boards, bureaus and commissions were abolished, hundreds of thousands of our Government officials, agents and employees were discharged and two-thirds of our Government regulations, restrictions and inhibitions were removed. As his political career drew to a close, Beveridge dedicated his time to writing historical literature. He was a member and secretary of the American Historical Association.

His four-volume set The Life of John Marshall. And connected events in John Marshall. S life with his later rulings on the US Supreme Court.

Beveridge spent most of his final years after his 1922 defeat writing a four-volume biography of Abraham Lincoln. It stripped away the myths and revealed a complex and imperfect politician. His accumulated materials for the continuance of the project were handed on to Carl Sandburg. At the request of his wife, Catherine Eddy Beveridge. In 1939, the AHA established the Beveridge Award.

In his memory, through a gift from the widow and from donations from members. There is a famous lost film of Leo Tolstoy. Made in 1901, a decade before Tolstoy died.

American travel lecturer Burton Holmes. As the three men conversed, Holmes filmed Tolstoy with his 60-mm camera. Afterwards, Beveridge's advisers succeeded in having the film destroyed, for fear that documentary evidence of a meeting with the radical Russian author might hurt his chances of running for the presidency. "In Support of an American Empire" (1900). The Young Man and the World (1905). The Life of John Marshall , in 4 volumes (1919), Volume I. The Meaning of the Times and other Speeches. Americans of Today and Tomorrow (1908).

What is Back of the War? "Bowers Sustains Reputation, Says Beveridge".

Abraham Lincoln 18091858, 2 vols. This article is about the American president. For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). 16th President of the United States.

March 4, 1861 April 15, 1865. March 4, 1847 March 3, 1849.

Member of the Illinois House of Representatives. December 1, 1834 December 4, 1842. February 12, 1809 Sinking Spring Farm. April 15, 1865 (aged 56) Washington, D. This article is part of a series about.

President of the United States. Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 April 15, 1865) was an American statesman, politician, and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States. From 1861 until his assassination.

Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War. Its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. Lincoln grew up on the frontier. Self-educated, he became a lawyer, Whig Party. He left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854.

He became a leader in the new Republican Party. And gained national attention in 1858 for debating.

National Democratic leader Stephen A. In the 1858 Illinois Senate campaign. He then ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the constitutional rights.

Of Southern states to practice slavery. They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America. One of the few U.

Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to suppress the rebellion and restore the Union. As the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans.

Who demanded harsher treatment of the South; War Democrats. Who rallied a large faction of former opponents into his camp; anti-war Democrats called Copperheads. , who despised him; and irreconcilable secessionists, who plotted his assassination. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by carefully distributing political patronage, and by appealing to the American people. Became an iconic call for nationalism.

And he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade. That shut down the South's trade. As the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.

Of 1863; ordering the Army to protect escaped slaves, encouraging border states. To outlaw slavery, and pushing through Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Which outlawed slavery across the country. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign.

He sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists. A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House. He was shot by John Wilkes Booth.

An actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, and died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero.

As among the greatest U. Early career and militia service. LincolnDouglas debates and Cooper Union speech.

States admitted to the Union. Main article: Early life and career of Abraham Lincoln.

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas. In a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm.

He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln. An Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk.

To its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln. Moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid.

His children, including eight-year-old Thomas. Abraham's father, witnessed the attack. Thomas then worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee. Before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky. Replica of Lincoln's birthplace near Hodgenville, Kentucky.

Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is widely assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, and moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky. They produced three children: Sarah. Born on February 10, 1807; Abraham, on February 12, 1809; and Thomas, who died in infancy. Thomas Lincoln bought or leased farms in Kentucky.

Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, and lost all but 200 acres (81 ha) of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana. Where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" (non-slaveholding) territory, and they settled in an "unbroken forest". In Hurricane Township, Perry County.

Their land became part of Spencer County, Indiana. When the county was established in 1818. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but mainly due to land title difficulties.

In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer, cabinetmaker, and carpenter. Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists. Church, which forbade alcohol, dancing, and slavery.

Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas eventually obtained clear title to 80 acres (32 ha) of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. Young Lincoln by Charles Keck. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness. In charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, and Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin.

Those who knew Lincoln later recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death; she died on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston. A widow from Elizabethtown, Kentucky, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred to as "Mother".

Lincoln disliked the hard labor associated with farm life. He was called lazy for all his reading, scribbling, writing, ciphering, writing Poetry, etc. His stepmother acknowledged he did not enjoy "physical labor", but loved to read.

His formal schooling (from travelling teachers) was intermittent, totaling less than 12 months; however, he was an avid reader and retained a lifelong interest in learning. Family, neighbors, and schoolmates recalled that he read and reread the King James Bible. S The Pilgrim's Progress. S The Life of Washington , and The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Teenaged Lincoln took responsibility for chores.

He accepted the customary practice that a son give his father all earnings from work outside the home until age 21. Lincoln became adept at using an axe.

Tall for his age, Lincoln was strong and athletic. He became known for his strength and audacity after winning a wrestling match with the renowned leader of a group of ruffians known as "the Clary's Grove boys". In early March 1830, partly out of fear of a milk sickness outbreak, several members of the extended Lincoln family moved west to Illinois, a free state, and settled in Macon County.

10 miles (16 km) west of Decatur. Historians disagree on who initiated the move; Thomas Lincoln had no obvious reason to do so. One possibility is that other members of the family, including Dennis Hanks, might not have matched Thomas's stability and steady income. After the family relocated to Illinois, Abraham became increasingly distant from Thomas.

In 1831, as Thomas and other family prepared to move to a new homestead. He lived in New Salem. Lincoln and some friends took goods by flatboat. To New Orleans, where he witnessed slavery firsthand.

And Sexuality of Abraham Lincoln. 1864 photo of President Lincoln with youngest son, Tad.

Wife of Abraham Lincoln, age 28. According to some sources, Lincoln's first romantic interest was Ann Rutledge.

Whom he met when he first moved to New Salem; these sources indicate that by 1835, they were in a relationship but not formally engaged. She died on August 25, 1835, most likely of typhoid fever. In the early 1830s, he met Mary Owens from Kentucky.

Mary arrived in November 1836, and Lincoln courted her for a time; however, they both had second thoughts. On August 16, 1837, Lincoln wrote Mary a letter suggesting he would not blame her if she ended the relationship. In 1840, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd. A daughter of Robert Smith Todd.

A wealthy slave-owner in Lexington, Kentucky. They met in Springfield, Illinois.

And were engaged a year later. A wedding set for January 1, 1841, was canceled at Lincoln's initiative. They reconciled and married on November 4, 1842, in the Springfield mansion of Mary's married sister.

While anxiously preparing for the nuptials, Lincoln was asked where he was going and replied, To hell, I suppose. In 1844, the couple bought a house. In Springfield near Lincoln's law office. Mary kept house, often with the help of a relative or hired servant. He was an affectionate, though often absent, husband and father of four children.

Was born in 1843 and Edward Baker Lincoln. Edward died on February 1, 1850, in Springfield, probably of tuberculosis.

Was born on December 21, 1850, and died of a fever on February 20, 1862. The Lincolns' fourth son, Thomas "Tad" Lincoln. Was born on April 4, 1853, and died of heart failure at the age of 18 on July 16, 1871. Robert reached adulthood and produced children. The Lincolns' last descendant, great-grandson Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith. Lincoln "was remarkably fond of children". And the Lincolns were not considered to be strict with their own. In fact, Lincoln's law partner William H. Would grow irritated when Lincoln would bring his children to the law office. Their father, it seemed, was often too absorbed in his own work to notice his children's behaviour. Herndon recounted, I have felt many and many a time that I wanted to wring their little necks, and yet out of respect for Lincoln I kept my mouth shut. Lincoln did not note what his children were doing or had done. The deaths of their sons had profound effects on both parents. , a condition later referred to as clinical depression.

Later in life, Mary struggled with the stresses of losing her husband and sons, and Robert committed her temporarily to a mental health asylum in 1875. Lincoln's father-in-law and others of the Todd family were either slave owners or slave traders. Lincoln was close to the Todds, and he and his family occasionally visited them. Mary cooked for Lincoln often during his presidency.

Raised by a wealthy family, her cooking was simple, but satisfied Lincoln's tastes, which included imported oysters. Further information: Early life and career of Abraham Lincoln. And Abraham Lincoln in the Black Hawk War. In 1832 Lincoln and partner Denton Offutt. Bought a general store on credit in New Salem.

That March he entered politics, running for the Illinois General Assembly. Advocating navigational improvements on the Sangamon River. He could draw crowds as a raconteur. Lincoln interrupted his campaign to briefly serve as a captain in the Illinois Militia during the Black Hawk War. At his first speech, he observed a supporter in the crowd under attack, grabbed the assailant by his "neck and the seat of his trousers" and tossed him. Lincoln finished eighth out of 13 candidates (the top four were elected), though he received 277 of the 300 votes cast in the New Salem precinct. Lincoln served as New Salem's postmaster and later as county surveyor, all the while reading voraciously. He decided to become a lawyer and began teaching himself law by reading Blackstone. S Commentaries on the Laws of England. Of his learning method, Lincoln stated: "I studied with nobody". Lincoln's home in Springfield, Illinois. His second state legislature campaign in 1834 was successful.

Although he ran as a Whig. Many Democrats favored him over a more powerful Whig opponent.

Lincoln served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives. As a Whig from Sangamon County. He supported the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. Later serving as a Canal Commissioner. In the 183536 legislative session, he voted to expand suffrage beyond white landowners to all white males.

He was known for his "free soil" stance of opposing both slavery and abolitionism. He first articulated this in 1837, saying, [The] Institution of slavery is founded on both injustice and bad policy, but the promulgation of abolition doctrines tends rather to increase than abate its evils.

In supporting the American Colonization Society. Program of advocating abolition and helping freed slaves to settle in Liberia. To the Illinois bar in 1836. He moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began to practice law under John T.

Lincoln developed a reputation as a formidable adversary during cross-examinations and closing arguments. He partnered with Stephen T. Then Lincoln began his practice. Whom Lincoln thought "a studious young man". Lincoln in his late 30s as a member of the U.

Photo taken by one of Lincoln's law students around 1846. From the early 1830s, Lincoln was a steadfast Whig and professed to friends in 1861 to be "an old line Whig, a disciple of Henry Clay". The party, including Lincoln, favored economic modernization in banking, tariffs to fund internal improvements.

Lincoln ran for the Whig nomination for Illinois's 7th district of the U. In 1843, but was defeated by John J. However, Lincoln won support for the principle of rotation, whereby Hardin would retire after only one term. Lincoln hoped that this arrangement would lead to his nomination in 1846.

Lincoln was indeed elected to the House of Representatives in 1846, where he served one two-year term. He was the only Whig in the Illinois delegation, showing party loyalty by participating in almost all votes and making speeches that echoed the party line. Lincoln, in collaboration with abolitionist Congressman Joshua R.

Wrote a bill to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia. With compensation for the owners, enforcement to capture fugitive slaves, and a popular vote on the matter. He abandoned the bill when it failed to garner sufficient Whig supporters. Committee on Post Office and Post Roads.

Committee on Expenditures in the War Department. On foreign and military policy, Lincoln spoke out against the MexicanAmerican War. Which he attributed to President James K. S desire for "military glorythat attractive rainbow, that rises in showers of blood". Lincoln supported the Wilmot Proviso.

Which if passed would have banned slavery in any U. Lincoln emphasized his opposition to Polk by drafting and introducing his Spot Resolutions. The war had begun with a Mexican slaughter of American soldiers in territory disputed by Mexico, and Polk insisted that Mexican soldiers had "invaded our territory and shed the blood of our fellow-citizens on our own soil".

Lincoln demanded that Polk show Congress the exact spot on which blood had been shed and prove that the spot was on American soil. Congress neither debated nor enacted the resolution, the national papers ignored it, and it cost Lincoln political support in his district. One Illinois newspaper derisively nicknamed him "spotty Lincoln".

Lincoln later regretted some of his statements, especially his attack on presidential war-making powers. Realizing Clay was unlikely to win the presidency, Lincoln, who had pledged in 1846 to serve only one term in the House, supported General Zachary Taylor. For the Whig nomination in the 1848 presidential election.

Taylor won and Lincoln hoped to be appointed Commissioner of the General Land Office. The administration offered him the consolation prize of secretary or governor of the Oregon Territory. This distant territory was a Democratic stronghold, and acceptance of the post would have effectively ended his legal and political career in Illinois, so he declined and resumed his law practice. See also: List of cases involving Abraham Lincoln. Twice a year for 16 years, 10 weeks at a time, he appeared in county seats in the midstate region when the county courts were in session.

Lincoln handled transportation cases in the midst of the nation's western expansion, particularly river barge conflicts under the many new railroad bridges. As a riverboat man, Lincoln initially favored those interests, but ultimately represented whoever hired him. He later represented a bridge company against a riverboat company in a landmark case. Involving a canal boat that sank after hitting a bridge. In 1849, he received a patent for a flotation device.

For the movement of boats in shallow water. The idea was never commercialized, but Lincoln is the only president to hold a patent. In 1851, he represented the Alton & Sangamon Railroad. In a dispute with shareholder James A.

The decision by the Illinois Supreme Court. Was cited by many other courts. Lincoln appeared before the Illinois Supreme Court in 175 cases, in 51 as sole counsel, of which 31 were decided in his favor. From 1853 to 1860, another of Lincoln's largest clients was the Illinois Central Railroad. Lincoln's legal reputation gave rise to his nickname "Honest Abe".

Lincoln's most notable criminal trial occurred in 1858 when he defended William "Duff" Armstrong. Who was on trial for the murder of James Preston Metzker. The case is famous for Lincoln's use of a fact established by judicial notice. In order to challenge the credibility of an eyewitness.

After an opposing witness testified to seeing the crime in the moonlight, Lincoln produced a Farmers' Almanac. Showing the moon was at a low angle, drastically reducing visibility. Lincoln rarely raised objections; but in an 1859 case, where he defended a cousin, Peachy Harrison, who was accused of killing a man, Lincoln angrily protested the judge's decision to exclude evidence favorable to his client. Instead of holding Lincoln in contempt of court as was expected, the judge, a Democrat, reversed his ruling, allowing the evidence and acquitting Harrison. Further information: Slave states and free states.

And Abraham Lincoln and slavery. Lincoln in 1858, the year of his debates. The debate over the status of slavery in the territories exacerbated sectional tensions between the slave-holding South and the free North.

Failed to defuse the issue. In the early 1850s, Lincoln supported sectional mediation, and his 1852 eulogy for Clay focused on the latter's support for gradual emancipation and opposition to "both extremes" on the slavery issue. As the 1850s progressed, the debate over slavery in the Nebraska Territory. Became particularly acrimonious, and Senator Douglas proposed popular sovereignty. As a compromise measure; the proposal would allow the electorate of each territory to decide the status of slavery.

The proposal alarmed many Northerners, who hoped to prevent the spread of slavery into the territories. Despite this Northern opposition, Douglas's KansasNebraska Act. Narrowly passed Congress in May 1854. For months after its passage, Lincoln did not publicly comment, but he came to strongly oppose it.

On October 16, 1854, in his Peoria Speech. , Lincoln declared his opposition to slavery, which he repeated en route to the presidency. Speaking in his Kentucky accent, with a powerful voice. He said the Kansas Act had a declared indifference, but as I must think, a covert real zeal for the spread of slavery. I cannot but hate it.

I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world... Lincoln's attacks on the KansasNebraska Act marked his return to political life. Nationally, the Whigs were irreparably split by the KansasNebraska Act and other efforts to compromise on the slavery issue. I do no more than oppose the extension of slavery. Drawing on the antislavery portion of the Whig Party, and combining Free Soil. Members, the new Republican Party.

Formed as a northern party dedicated to antislavery. Lincoln resisted early recruiting attempts, fearing that it would serve as a platform for extreme abolitionists. Lincoln hoped to rejuvenate the Whigs, though he lamented his party's growing closeness with the nativist Know Nothing. In the 1854 elections, Lincoln was elected to the Illinois legislature but declined to take his seat.

In the elections' aftermath, which showed the power and popularity of the movement opposed to the KansasNebraska Act, Lincoln instead sought election to the United States Senate. At that time, senators were elected by the state legislature.

After leading in the first six rounds of voting, he was unable to obtain a majority. Lincoln instructed his backers to vote for Lyman Trumbull.

Trumbull was an antislavery Democrat, and had received few votes in the earlier ballots; his supporters, also antislavery Democrats, had vowed not to support any Whig. Lincoln's decision to withdraw enabled his Whig supporters and Trumbull's antislavery Democrats to combine and defeat the mainstream Democratic candidate, Joel Aldrich Matteson. In part due to the ongoing violent political confrontations in Kansas. Opposition to the KansasNebraska Act remained strong throughout the North. Approached, Lincoln joined the Republicans.

He attended the May 1856 Bloomington Convention. Which formally established the Illinois Republican Party. The convention platform asserted that Congress had the right to regulate slavery in the territories and called for the immediate admission of Kansas as a free state. Lincoln gave the final speech.

Of the convention, in which he endorsed the party platform and called for the preservation of the Union. At the June 1856 Republican National Convention. Lincoln received significant support to run for vice president, though the party nominated William Dayton. To run with John C.

Lincoln supported the Republican ticket, campaigning throughout Illinois. The Democrats nominated former Ambassador James Buchanan. Who had been out of the country since 1853 and thus had avoided the slavery debate, while the Know Nothings nominated former Whig President Millard Fillmore. Buchanan defeated both his challengers. Won election as Governor of Illinois.

Lincoln's vigorous campaigning had made him the leading Republican in Illinois. A portrait of Dred Scott. Lincoln denounced the Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford as part of a conspiracy to extend slavery. (2010) contrasts the abolitionists and anti-slavery Radical Republicans of the Northeast, who saw slavery as a sin, with the conservative Republicans, who thought it was bad because it hurt white people and blocked progress.

Foner argues that Lincoln was a moderate in the middle, opposing slavery primarily because it violated the republicanism principles. Especially the equality of all men and democratic self-government as expressed in the Declaration of Independence. In March 1857, in Dred Scott v. Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B.

Wrote that blacks were not citizens and derived no rights from the Constitution. While many Democrats hoped that Dred Scott would end the dispute over slavery in the territories, the decision sparked further outrage in the North. Lincoln denounced it, alleging it was the product of a conspiracy of Democrats to support the Slave Power. Lincoln argued, The authors of the Declaration of Independence never intended'to say all were equal in color, size, intellect, moral developments, or social capacity', but they'did consider all men created equalequal in certain inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness'.

Douglas was up for re-election in 1858, and Lincoln hoped to defeat him. With the former Democrat Trumbull now serving as a Republican senator, many in the party felt that a former Whig should be nominated in 1858, and Lincoln's 1856 campaigning and willingness to support Trumbull in 1854 had earned him favor. Some eastern Republicans favored Douglas's re-election in 1858, since he had led the opposition to the Lecompton Constitution.

Which would have admitted Kansas as a slave state. Many Illinois Republicans resented this eastern interference. For the first time, Illinois Republicans held a convention to agree upon a Senate candidate, and Lincoln won the nomination with little opposition.

Abraham Lincoln (1860) by Mathew Brady. Taken the day of the Cooper Union speech. Accepting the nomination, Lincoln delivered his House Divided Speech. Drawing on Mark 3:25. A house divided against itself cannot stand.

I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolvedI do not expect the house to fallbut I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. The speech created an evocative image of the danger of disunion.

The stage was then set for the campaign for statewide election of the Illinois legislature which would, in turn, select Lincoln or Douglas. When informed of Lincoln's nomination, Douglas stated, [Lincoln] is the strong man of the party... And if I beat him, my victory will be hardly won. The Senate campaign featured seven debates.

The most famous political debates in American history. The principals stood in stark contrast both physically and politically. Lincoln warned that The Slave Power.

Was threatening the values of republicanism, and accused Douglas of distorting the values of the Founding Fathers that all men are created equal. While Douglas emphasized his Freeport Doctrine.

That local settlers were free to choose whether to allow slavery, and accused Lincoln of having joined the abolitionists. The debates had an atmosphere of a prize fight and drew crowds in the thousands. Lincoln's argument was rooted in morality. He claimed that Douglas represented a conspiracy to extend slavery to free states. Douglas's argument was legal, claiming that Lincoln was defying the authority of the U.

Supreme Court and the Dred Scott decision. Though the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes, the Democrats won more seats, and the legislature re-elected Douglas. Lincoln's articulation of the issues gave him a national political presence.

In the aftermath of the 1858 election, newspapers frequently mentioned Lincoln as a potential Republican presidential candidate, rivaled by William H. While Lincoln was popular in the Midwest, he lacked support in the Northeast, and was unsure whether to seek the office.

In January 1860, Lincoln told a group of political allies that he would accept the nomination if offered, and in the following months several local papers endorsed his candidacy. On February 27, 1860, New York party leaders invited Lincoln to give a speech at Cooper Union. To a group of powerful Republicans.

Lincoln argued that the Founding Fathers. Had little use for popular sovereignty and had repeatedly sought to restrict slavery. Lincoln insisted that morality required opposition to slavery, and rejected any "groping for some middle ground between the right and the wrong". Despite his inelegant appearancemany in the audience thought him awkward and even ugly. Lincoln demonstrated intellectual leadership that brought him into contention.

Reported, No man ever before made such an impression on his first appeal to a New York audience. In response to an inquiry about his ambitions, Lincoln said, The taste is in my mouth a little. Main article: 1860 United States presidential election. Wood engraving taken from a May 20, 1860, ambrotype of Lincoln, two days following his nomination for president.

On May 910, 1860, the Illinois Republican State Convention was held in Decatur. Lincoln's followers organized a campaign team led by David Davis. And Jesse DuBois, and Lincoln received his first endorsement. Exploiting his embellished frontier legend (clearing land and splitting fence rails), Lincoln's supporters adopted the label of "The Rail Candidate". On May 18, at the Republican National Convention.

In Chicago, Lincoln won the nomination on the third ballot, beating candidates such as Seward and Chase. A former Democrat, Hannibal Hamlin. Of Maine, was nominated for Vice President to balance the ticket.

Lincoln's success depended on his campaign team, his reputation as a moderate on the slavery issue, and his strong support for Whiggish programs of internal improvements and the tariff. Pennsylvania put him over the top, led by Pennsylvania iron interests who were reassured by his tariff support. Lincoln's managers had focused on this delegation, while following Lincoln's dictate to "Make no contracts that bind me". Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North was the aggrieved party, as the Slave Power tightened its grasp on the national government.

Throughout the 1850s, Lincoln doubted the prospects of civil war, and his supporters rejected claims that his election would incite secession. Douglas was selected as the candidate of the Northern Democrats.

Delegates from eleven slave states walked out of the Democratic convention. Disagreeing with Douglas's position on popular sovereignty, and ultimately selected incumbent Vice President John C. A group of former Whigs and Know Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party. Lincoln and Douglas competed for votes in the North, while Bell and Breckinridge primarily found support in the South.

Lincoln's campaign team carefully projected his image as an ideal candidate. The Rail Candidate Lincoln's 1860 candidacy is depicted by critics as held up by the slavery issuea slave on the left and party organization on the right.

Prior to the Republican convention, the Lincoln campaign began cultivating a nationwide youth organization, the Wide Awakes. Which it used to generate popular support throughout the country to spearhead voter registration drives, thinking that new voters and young voters tended to embrace new parties. Lincoln's ideas of abolishing slavery. People of the Northern states knew the Southern states would vote against Lincoln and rallied supporters for Lincoln. As Douglas and the other candidates campaigned, Lincoln was the only one to give no speeches.

Instead, he relied on the enthusiasm of the Republican Party. The party did the leg work that produced majorities across the North, and produced an abundance of campaign posters, leaflets, and newspaper editorials. Thousands of Republican speakers focused first on the party platform, and second on Lincoln's life story, emphasizing his childhood poverty.

The goal was to demonstrate the superior power of "free labor", whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top by his own efforts. In 1860, northern and western electoral.

Votes (shown in red) put Lincoln into the White House. On November 6, Lincoln was elected the 16th president of the United States. He was the first Republican president and his victory was entirely due to his support in the North and West; no ballots were cast for him in 10 of the 15 Southern slave states, and he won only two of 996 counties in all the Southern states. Lincoln received 1,866,452 votes, or 39.8% of the total in a four-way race. He won the free Northern states, as well as California and Oregon.

Lincoln's victory in the electoral college. Was decisive: Lincoln had 180 and his opponents added together had only 123.

Main article: Presidency of Abraham Lincoln. After the November election, secessionists planned to leave the Union before he took office in March.

On December 20, 1860, South Carolina took the lead by adopting an ordinance of secession; by February 1, 1861, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas had followed. Six of these states declared themselves to be a sovereign nation, the Confederate States of America. The upper South and border states (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, and Arkansas) listened to, but initially rejected, the secessionist appeal. President Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln refused to recognize the Confederacy, declaring secession illegal.

The Confederacy selected Jefferson Davis. As its provisional President on February 9, 1861. Lincoln and the Republicans rejected the proposed Crittenden Compromise.

As contrary to the Party's free-soil in the territories. Lincoln rejected the idea, saying, I will suffer death before I consent... Lincoln did tacitly support the proposed Corwin Amendment. To the Constitution, which passed Congress before Lincoln came into office and was then awaiting ratification by the states. That proposed amendment would have protected slavery in states where it already existed.

A few weeks before the war, Lincoln sent a letter to every governor informing them Congress had passed a joint resolution to amend the Constitution. Lincoln was open to the possibility of a constitutional convention to make further amendments to the Constitution.

March 1861 inaugural at the Capitol building. Above the rotunda was still under construction. En route to his inauguration, Lincoln addressed crowds and legislatures across the North.

The president-elect evaded possible assassins. On February 23, 1861, he arrived in disguise in Washington, D. Which was placed under substantial military guard. Lincoln directed his inaugural address.

To the South, proclaiming once again that he had no intention, or inclination, to abolish slavery in the Southern states. Lincoln cited his plans for banning the expansion of slavery as the key source of conflict between North and South, stating One section of our country believes slavery is right and ought to be extended, while the other believes it is wrong and ought not to be extended. This is the only substantial dispute. " The President ended his address with an appeal to the people of the South: "We are not enemies, but friends.

We must not be enemies... The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield, and patriot grave, to every living heart and hearthstone, all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature. The failure of the Peace Conference of 1861.

Signaled that legislative compromise was impossible. By March 1861, no leaders of the insurrection had proposed rejoining the Union on any terms. Meanwhile, Lincoln and the Republican leadership agreed that the dismantling of the Union could not be tolerated. Lincoln said in his second inaugural address.

Main articles: American Civil War. And Battle of Fort Sumter.

Fort Sumter's commander, Major Robert Anderson. Sent a request for provisions to Washington, and the execution of Lincoln's order to meet that request was seen by the secessionists as an act of war.

On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces fired on Union troops at Fort Sumter. Argued that the newly inaugurated Lincoln made three miscalculations: underestimating the gravity of the crisis, exaggerating the strength of Unionist sentiment in the South, and not realizing the Southern Unionists were insisting there be no invasion. Talked to Lincoln during inauguration week and was "sadly disappointed" at his failure to realize that "the country was sleeping on a volcano" and that the South was preparing for war. Donald concludes that, His repeated efforts to avoid collision in the months between inauguration and the firing on Ft. Sumter showed he adhered to his vow not to be the first to shed fraternal blood. But he also vowed not to surrender the forts. The only resolution of these contradictory positions was for the confederates to fire the first shot; they did just that. On April 15, Lincoln called on the states to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect Washington, and "preserve the Union", which, in his view, remained intact despite the seceding states. This call forced states to choose sides. Virginia seceded and was rewarded with the Confederate capital, despite the exposed position of Richmond.

North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas followed over the following two months. Secession sentiment was strong in Missouri and Maryland, but did not prevail; Kentucky remained neutral. The Fort Sumter attack rallied Americans north of the Mason-Dixon line. States sent Union regiments south.

On April 19, mobs in Baltimore, which controlled rail links, attacked Union troops. Local leaders' groups later burned critical rail bridges to the capital. The Army responded by arresting local Maryland. Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus. In areas the army felt it needed to secure for troops to reach Washington. A Maryland official involved in hindering the U. Troop movements, petitioned Supreme Court Chief Justice and Marylander, Roger B. Author of the Dred Scott opinion, to issue a writ of habeas corpus.

In June Taney, acting as a circuit judge and not speaking for the Supreme Court, issued the writ, because in his opinion only Congress could suspend the writ. Lincoln continued the army policy that the writ was suspended in limited areas despite the ex parte Merryman. After the Battle of Fort Sumter. Lincoln took executive control of the war and formed an overall Union. Lincoln responded to this unprecedented political and military crisis as commander-in-chief.

He expanded his war powers, imposed a blockade on Confederate ports, disbursed funds before appropriation by Congress, suspended habeas corpus , and arrested and imprisoned thousands of suspected Confederate sympathizers. Lincoln was supported by Congress and the northern public for these actions. In addition, Lincoln had to reinforce Union sympathies in the border slave states and keep the war from becoming an international conflict. Running the'Machine : An 1864 political cartoon satirizing Lincoln's administration featuring William Fessenden.

The war dominated Lincoln's time and attention. From the start, it was clear that bipartisan support would be essential to success, and that any compromise would alienate factions on both sides of the aisle, such as the appointment of Republicans and Democrats to command positions. Copperheads criticized Lincoln for refusing to compromise on slavery. The Radical Republicans criticized him for moving too slowly in abolishing slavery.

On August 6, 1861, Lincoln signed the Confiscation Act. That authorized judicial proceedings to confiscate and free slaves who were used to support the Confederates. In practice, the law had little effect, but it did signal political support for abolishing slavery. In late August 1861, General John C.

The 1856 Republican presidential nominee, without consulting his superiors in Washington, proclaimed a very harsh martial law in Missouri. Lincoln cancelled the proclamation, saying its emancipation plan was political, lacking military necessity and a legal basis. After Lincoln acted, Union enlistments from Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri increased by over 40,000.

In foreign policy, Lincoln's main goal was to stop military aid to the Confederacy. Lincoln left most diplomatic matters to his Secretary of State, William Seward. At times Seward was too bellicose, so for balance Lincoln maintained a close working relationship with Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Of late 1861 threatened war with Great Britain.

Lincoln ended the crisis by releasing the two diplomats. Dissected Lincoln's successful techniques.

Lincoln painstakingly monitored the telegraph reports coming into War Department. He tracked all phases of the effort, consulted with governors, and selected generals based on their success (as well as their state and party). In January 1862, after many complaints of inefficiency and profiteering in the War Department, Lincoln replaced Simon Cameron. Stanton was a staunchly Unionist, pro-business, conservative Democrat who moved toward the Radical Republican faction.

He worked more often and more closely with Lincoln than any other senior official. "Stanton and Lincoln virtually conducted the war together, " say Thomas and Hyman. In terms of war strategy, Lincoln articulated two priorities: to ensure that Washington was well-defended, and to conduct an aggressive war effort leading to prompt, decisive victory.

However major Northern newspapers demanded morethey expected victory within 90 days. Twice a week, Lincoln met with his cabinet in the afternoon. Occasionally Mary would force him to take a carriage ride, concerned that he was working too hard. Lincoln learned from reading his chief of staff General Henry Halleck. S book, a disciple of the European strategist Jomini. He began to appreciate the critical need to control strategic points, such as the Mississippi River. Lincoln saw the importance of Vicksburg. And understood the necessity of defeating the enemy's army, rather than simply capturing territory. After the Union rout at Bull Run. S retirement, Lincoln appointed Major General George B. McClellan then took months to plan his Peninsula Campaign. McClellan's slow progress frustrated Lincoln, as did his position that no troops were needed to defend Washington. McClellan blamed Lincoln's holding troops back for his campaign's subsequent failure. Lincoln went as far as meeting with General McClellan in his home to discuss matters privately. Once McClellan heard Lincoln was in his home, McClellan stay hidden away until Lincoln left. Lincoln removed McClellan in March 1862, after McClellan offered unsolicited political advice. In July Lincoln elevated Henry Halleck.

As head of the new Army of Virginia. Pope complied with Lincoln's desire to advance on Richmond from the north, thus protecting Washington from counterattack. Pope was then soundly defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

In the summer of 1862, forcing the Army of the Potomac back to defend Washington. Despite his dissatisfaction with McClellan's failure to reinforce Pope, Lincoln restored him to command of all forces around Washington. Two days after McClellan's return to command, General Robert E. S forces crossed the Potomac River.

Into Maryland, leading to the Battle of Antietam. The ensuing Union victory was among the bloodiest in American history, but it enabled Lincoln to announce that he would issue an Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln had waited for a military victory so that the Proclamation would not be perceived as the product of desperation.

McClellan then resisted the president's demand that he pursue Lee's army, while General Don Carlos Buell. Likewise refused orders to move the Army of the Ohio. Against rebel forces in eastern Tennessee. Lincoln replaced Buell with William Rosecrans. And, after the 1862 midterm elections.

Replaced McClellan with Ambrose Burnside. Both were presumably more supportive of the commander-in-chief. Burnside, against presidential advice, launched an offensive across the Rappahannock River. And was defeated by Lee at Fredericksburg. Desertions during 1863 came in the thousands and increased after Fredericksburg.

And fears that freed slaves would come North and undermine the labor market. The Emancipation Proclamation gained votes for Republicans in rural New England and the upper Midwest, but cost votes in the Irish and German strongholds and in the lower Midwest, where many Southerners had lived for generations.

In the spring of 1863, Lincoln became optimistic about upcoming military campaigns to the point of thinking the end of the war could be near if a string of victories could be put together; these plans included attacks by Hooker. On Lee north of Richmond, Rosecrans on Chattanooga, Grant.

On Vicksburg, and a naval assault on Charleston. Hooker was routed by Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville. He then resigned and was replaced by George Meade. Meade followed Lee into Pennsylvania and beat him in the Gettysburg Campaign.

But then failed to follow up despite Lincoln's demands. At the same time, Grant captured Vicksburg and gained control of the Mississippi River, splitting off the far western rebel states. Main articles: Abraham Lincoln and slavery. First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln. The Federal government's power to end slavery was limited by the Constitution, which before 1865, committed the issue to individual states.

Lincoln argued that slavery would end by preventing its expansion into new territories. He sought to persuade the states to accept compensated emancipation. In return for their prohibition of slavery. Lincoln believed that curtailing slavery would make it obsolete. Lincoln rejected Fremont's two emancipation attempts in August 1861 and one by Major General David Hunter. In May 1862, on the grounds that it was not within their power, and would upset loyal border states.

On June 19, 1862, endorsed by Lincoln, Congress passed an act banning slavery on all federal territory. In July, the Confiscation Act of 1862.

Was enacted, which set up court procedures to free the slaves of those convicted of aiding the rebellion. Although Lincoln believed this was not within Congress's power, he approved the bill in deference to the legislature.

He felt such action could be taken only by the Commander-in-Chief, using Constitutional war powers, which he planned to do. Lincoln discussed a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation with his cabinet. Privately, Lincoln concluded that the Confederacy's slave base had to be eliminated. However, Copperheads argued that emancipation was a stumbling block to peace and reunification.

Of the New York Tribune agreed. Lincoln rejected this argument directly in his letter of August 22, 1862.

Although he said he personally wished all men could be free, Lincoln stated that the primary goal of his actions as president (he used the first person pronoun and explicitly refers to his "official duty") was that of preserving the Union. The Emancipation Proclamation, issued on September 22, 1862, with effect on January 1, 1863, declared free the slaves in 10 states not then under Union control, with exemptions specified for areas under Union control in two states. Lincoln spent the next 100 days preparing the army and the nation for emancipation, while Democrats rallied their voters by warning of the threat that freed slaves posed to northern whites.

Once the abolition of slavery in the rebel states became a military objective, Union armies advancing south liberated three million slaves. Lincoln's comment on the signing of the Proclamation was: I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing this paper.

Lincoln continued earlier plans to set up colonies. For the newly freed slaves.

He supported this in the Proclamation, but the undertaking failed. Enlisting former slaves became official policy. By the spring of 1863, Lincoln was ready to recruit black troops in more than token numbers. In a letter to Tennessee military governor Andrew Johnson.

Encouraging him to lead the way in raising black troops, Lincoln wrote, "The bare sight of 50,000 armed and drilled black soldiers on the banks of the Mississippi would end the rebellion at once". By the end of 1863, at Lincoln's direction, General Lorenzo Thomas. Had recruited 20 regiments of blacks from the Mississippi Valley. The only confirmed photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg, some three hours before the speech.

Lincoln is slightly left of center, just behind the mass of blurry people. Lincoln spoke at the Gettysburg battlefield cemetery on November 19, 1863. Defying his prediction that "the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here", the Address became the most quoted speech in American history.

In 272 words, and three minutes, Lincoln asserted that the nation was born not in 1789, but in 1776, "conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal". He defined the war as dedicated to the principles of liberty and equality for all. He declared that the deaths of so many brave soldiers would not be in vain, that slavery would end, and the future of democracy would be assured, that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth". The item "LEATHER SetABRAHAM LINCOLN! Beveridge FIRST Civil War(MANUSCRIPT EDITION!

)RARE" is in sale since Saturday, July 6, 2019. This item is in the category "Books\Antiquarian & Collectible". The seller is "merchants-rare-books" and is located in Moab, Utah.

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  • Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Company
  • Modified Item: No
  • Subject: History
  • Place of Publication: Boston and New York
  • Topic: American (US)
  • Author: Albert J. Beveridge, [Abraham Lincoln]
  • Year Printed: 1928
  • Language: English
  • Special Attributes: Manuscript Edition
  • Original/Facsimile: Original
  • Binding: Leather